Manual Reason, Democracy, and Science (The Selected Works of Arne Naess, Volume 9)

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Interpretation and Preciseness 1. Basic Terms 2. Basic Terms Continued 3. Misinterpretation and Pseudoagreement 4. Definitoid Statements 5. Elementary Analysis 6. Occurrence Analysis 7. Introduction of a Group of Concepts or Tests of Synonymity 8. Synonymity Questionnaires in Use 2. Scepticism 9. The Psychological Possibility of Scepticism Scepticism and Positive Mental Health Conceptual Complementarity of Evidence and Truth Requirements Dialectics of Modern Epistemological Scepticism 3. Which World Is the Real One? Descriptions of Maximally Comprehensive Perspectives Comparison of Different Total Views Metaphysics as Exposure of Presuppositions Cultures Construed as All-Embracing Systems Some Conclusions 4.

The Impact of the New Historiography of Science Experimental Setup, Rank Dimensions, and Pluralism Theory and Theoretical Idea The Unimpressiveness of Impossibilities Gandhi and Group Conflict Gandhi's Experiments The Metaphysics of Satyagraha Comparison with Certain Other Philosophies of Conflict 6.

The myth of American democracy

Freedom, Emotion, and Self-Subsistence Existence and Freedom Causation, Cognition, and Action Grading Basic Distinctions Joy Good and Bad and Usefulness Virtue and Reason Self-Satisfaction 7. Your name. Your email. Send Cancel. Check system status. Toggle navigation Menu.

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The selected works of Arne Naess. Responsibility revised and edited by Harold Glasser ; in cooperation with the author ; and with the assistance from Alan Drengson. Uniform Title Works. For the Marxist, the choice is simple. Though regressions do occasionally take place throughout history, one cannot turn back the hands of time wholesale. Thus is the dream of the anarcho-primitivists only a nightmarish fantasy, never to be realized.

One can only progress by moving forward. The only answer the Marxist can accept is worldwide revolution — the fundamental transformation of existing social relations. This revolution must honor neither regional convention nor national boundary, it must extend to encompass the globe. The tradition of all dead generations weighs like a nightmare on the brains of the living.

With the seizing of the means of production by society, production of commodities is done away with, and, simultaneously, the mastery of the product over the producer. Anarchy in social production is replaced by systematic, definite organization. The struggle for individual existence disappears. Then, for the first time, man, in a certain sense, is finally marked off from the rest of the animal kingdom, and emerges from mere animal conditions of existence into really human ones. The whole sphere of the conditions of life which environ man, and which have hitherto ruled man, now comes under the dominion and control of man, who for the first time becomes the real, conscious lord of nature, because he has now become master of his own social organization.

The laws of his own social action, hitherto standing face-to-face with man as laws of Nature foreign to, and dominating him, will then be used with full understanding, and so mastered by him.


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The extraneous objective forces that have, hitherto, governed history, pass under the control of man himself. Only from that time will man himself, more and more consciously, make his own history — only from that time will the social causes set in movement by him have, in the main and in a constantly growing measure, the results intended by him. It is the ascent of man from the kingdom of necessity to the kingdom of freedom.

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How to achieve such a seizure of the means of production is a political question, one that has been dealt with historically by figures like Lenin and Trostkii. And although it would be utopian to speculate exactly what such a realized society would look like, a few possibilities seem plausible. First, such an emancipated society, freed from the rule of Capital and the forces of history, can now consciously direct its actions at a global level.

No longer would there be the haphazard, chaotic hyperexploitation of nature that one sees under capitalism, which so often gives rise to crises and acute shortages. Secondly, humanity, liberated from its servitude to merely use technology as a tool to generate relative surplus-value, can now self-consciously harness the vast technological forces bestowed upon it by capitalist society. No longer beholden to these machines, gadgets, and other devices, but their master, human society can use these technological instruments to radically reshape nature for the benefit of both society and nature.

A Random Man on Planet Earth: Remembering Arne Naess ()

Indeed, this would involve both the transformation of man and nature. Or, as Trotskii put it in the conclusion of his book, Literature and Revolution , in a quote that might as well serve as an appendix to our whole discussion:. The Socialist man will rule all nature by the machine, with its grouse and its sturgeons. He will point out places for mountains and for passes.

He will change the course of the rivers, and he will lay down rules for the oceans. The idealist simpletons may say that this will be a bore, but that is why they are simpletons. Of course this does not mean that the entire globe will be marked off into boxes, that the forests will be turned into parks and gardens. Most likely, thickets and forests and grouse and tigers will remain, but only where man commands them to remain.

The machine is not in opposition to the earth. Man has already made changes in the map of nature that are not few nor insignificant. Up to now this was done for industrial purposes mines or for railways tunnels ; in the future this will be done on an immeasurably larger scale, according to a general industrial and artistic plan. Man will occupy himself with re-registering mountains and rivers, and will earnestly and repeatedly make improvements in nature. In the end, he will have rebuilt the earth, if not in his own image, at least according to his own taste. The Marxist vision of an emancipated society is one of abundance and plenitude, not of scarcity and shortage.

It is a vision of unlimited human freedom, not within the constraints of an ascetic lifestyle. There may be limitations in terms of what we might accomplish in transforming nature at the present moment, but that is no reason set arbitrary limits on what might be accomplished in the future. We might close by saying that not only can the social world be changed, but our physical world as well. Look to the Land. Sophia Perennis. Hillsdale, NY: Originally written in University Press of Kentucky.

Lexington, KY: Originally published in This company now owns many other organic brands, which continue to appear to be independent. And who owns Hain? The prime investors in the Hain Food Group are mutual funds and holding companies. Heinz Co. And, no surprises here, Heinz is principally owned by the same mutual funds and principal stockholders as is Hain.