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Phi Phi 1 1 silver badge 10 10 bronze badges. If you'd prefer, I could expand to a follow-up question.

Electroweak Physics and the Early Universe | Jorge C. Romão | Springer

I suppose theorists being theorists one could devise a quantum mechanical. Their differentiation into w z and photon happens at the transition, before that they were one.

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Unicorn Meta Zoo 8: What does leadership look like in our communities? Related 9. That it doesn't couple to the photon and gluons means those particles remain massless. We know that the particles have mass; we know how they get mass; we've discovered the particles responsible for mass.

But we still have no idea why the particles have the values of the masses they do.

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We have no idea why the coupling constants have the couplings that they do. The Higgs boson is real; the gauge bosons are real; the quarks and leptons are real. We can create, detect, and measure their properties exquisitely. Yet, when it comes to understanding why they have the values that they do, that's a puzzle we cannot yet solve.

We do not have the answer. The masses of the fundamental particles in the Universe, once the electroweak symmetry is broken, spans many orders of magnitude, withe the neutrinos being the lightest massive particles and the top quark being the heaviest.

We do not understand why the coupling constants have the values they do, and hence, why the particles have the masses they do. Before the breaking of the electroweak symmetry, everything that is known to exist in the Universe today is massless, and moves at the speed of light. Once the Higgs symmetry breaks, it gives mass to the quarks and leptons of the Universe, the W and Z bosons, and the Higgs boson itself. A visual history of the expanding Universe includes the hot, dense state known as the Big Bang and the growth and formation of structure subsequently.

Without the Higgs giving mass to the particles in the Universe at a very early, hot stage, none of this would have been possible.

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Without this critical gauge symmetry associated with electroweak symmetry breaking, existence wouldn't be possible, as we do not have stable, bound states made purely of massless particles. But with fundamental masses to the quarks and charged leptons, the Universe can now do something it's never done before.

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It can cool and create bound states like protons and neutrons. It can cool further and create atomic nuclei and, eventually, neutral atoms.

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And when enough time goes by, it can give rise to stars, galaxies, planets, and human beings. Without the Higgs to give mass to the Universe, none of this would be possible. The Higgs, despite the fact that it took 50 years to discover, has been making the Universe possible for The Universe might start of at energies as large as 10 15 or 10 16 GeV; even by time it's dropped to 10 3 GeV, no Standard Model particle is threatened.

Electroweak Physics and the Early Universe

The reason particles are in this strange, bizarre state that's so different from how they exist today? I have won numerous awards for science writing s The probability of four top quarks being produced at the LHC is about a factor of ten less likely than the production of Higgs bosons together with two top quarks, and about a factor of ten thousand less likely than the production of just a top quark pair.

The ATLAS collaboration has also reported first evidence for the simultaneous production of three W or Z bosons, which are the mediator particles of the weak force. One of the possible theories is supersymmetry , an extension of the Standard Model, which features a symmetry between matter and force and introduces many new particles, including possible candidates for dark matter. These hypothetical particles have not been detected in experiments so far, and the collaborations have set stronger lower limits on the possible range of masses that they could have.

The CMS collaboration has placed new limits on the parameters of new physics theories that describe hypothetical slowly moving heavy particles.

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CMS has also presented first evidence for another rare process, the production of two W bosons in not one but two simultaneous interactions between the constituents of the colliding protons. The existence of such neutral heavy particles is predicted by certain Grand Unified theories that could provide an elegant extension of the Standard Model.

A Possibility of QCD-Induced Electroweak Phase Transition in the Early Universe--Satoshi Iso

The LHCb collaboration has presented several new measurements concerning particles containing beauty or charm quarks. Certain properties of these particles can be affected by the existence of new particles beyond the Standard Model. This allows LHCb to search for signs of new physics via a complementary, indirect route. This follows a pattern of intriguing hints in other, similar decay processes; while none of these results are significant enough to constitute evidence of new physics on their own, they have captured the interest of physicists and will be investigated further with the full LHCb data set.